Wednesday, August 7, 2013

Pseudo 'random' even distribution table




In my last post, I discussed what a co-prime is and showed you to find them.

So, what's so special about relatively prime numbers? Well, then can be used to create an one-for-one distribution table that is seemingly random, but is deterministically calculated (created).

To understand what I mean, picture the face of a clock...


It has the hours 1 through 12, and if you and an hour to 12, you get 1. This can also be thought of as a single digit in a base12 number system. Now we need a co-prime to 12. 7 is relatively prime to 12, so lets choose 7.

Starting at hour 1, if we add 7 hours, it will be 8. If we add 7 more hours, we will get 3. 7 more, 10. If we keep adding 7 hours to our clock, the hour hand will land on each of the different numbers exactly once before repeating itself, 12 steps later. Intrigued yet?

If, say, we find a co-prime to the largest number that can be represented by a byte (8-bits, 256 [also expressed as 2^8=256 or 8=Log2(256)]), we can create an array of bytes with a length of 256, containing each of the 256 different possible bytes, distributed in a seemingly random order. The discrete order, or sequence, in which each each number is visited it completely dependent on the value of the co-prime that was selected.

This table is now essentially a one-to-one, bijective mapping of one byte to another. To express this mapping to another party, say to map a stream of bytes back to their original values (decrypt), the entire table need not be exchanged, only the co-prime.

This provides a foundation for an encryption scheme who's technical requirements are similar to handling a cypher-block-chain (CBC) and its changing IV (initialization vector).

Now, it it easy to jump to the conclusion that such an encryption scheme is less secure than a CBC, but this is not necessarily the case. While this approach may be conceptually more simple, the difficulty of discovering the sequence can be made arbitrarily hard.

First of all, the number of relatively prime numbers to 256 is probably infinite. A co-prime to 256 does not have to be less than 256. Indeed, it may be several thousand time greater than 256. Additionally, any prime greater than 256 is, by definition, co-prime to 256, and likely will have a seemingly more 'random' distribution/appearance.

There is, however, a limit here. It does not have to do with the number of co-primes, but is instead limited by the number of possible sequences that can be represented by our array of 256 bytes; eventually, two different co-primes are going to map to the same unique sequence. The order matters, and we don't allow repetition to exist in our sequence. This is called a permutation without repetition, and can be expressed as 256! This is called a factorial and and is instructing one to calculate the product of 256*255*254*253[...]*6*5*4*3*2*1 which equals exactly 857817775342842654119082271681232625157781520279485619859655650377269452553147589377440291360451408450375885342336584306157196834693696475322289288497426025679637332563368786442675207626794560187968867971521143307702077526646451464709187326100832876325702818980773671781454170250523018608495319068138257481070252817559459476987034665712738139286205234756808218860701203611083152093501947437109101726968262861606263662435022840944191408424615936000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.
Yeah, that's right, that number has exactly 63 zeros on the end. Inorite? Its also 507 digits long.

Above I said arbitrarily hard. So far we have only considered one table, but try and fathom the complexity of many tables. I present three different ways to use multiple tables; Nested, sequentially, and mangled.
Furthermore, the distribution tables can be discarded and replaced.

I will explain what those mean and finish this post tomorrow.